Particles versus waves : two explanations for the transmission of light. by Menahem Finegold

Cover of: Particles versus waves : two explanations for the transmission of light. | Menahem Finegold

Published by Ontario Institute for Studies in Education in Toronto .

Written in English

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  • Light -- Transmission.

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementMenahem Finegold.
SeriesStudies in scientific enquiry
ContributionsOntario Institute for Studies in Education.
The Physical Object
Paginationiv, 16 p. :
Number of Pages16
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16203527M
ISBN 100774401370

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Maxwell’s equations. James Clerk Maxwell derived a wave form of the electric and magnetic equations, thus uncovering the wave-like nature of electric and magnetic fields and their e the speed of EM waves predicted by the wave equation coincided with the measured speed of light, Maxwell concluded that light itself is an EM wave.

Maxwell's equations were. Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light.

Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves. Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship Particles versus waves : two explanations for the transmission of light.

book the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air. In optics, the law is used in ray tracing to compute the angles of incidence or.

The answer was to assume the energy of light waves was not continuous but came in fixed amounts, as if it was composed of a large number of particles, like our handful of marbles. Wave-Particle Duality in Light In the s, Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton proposed competing theories for light's behavior.

Huygens proposed a wave theory of light while Newton's was a "corpuscular" (particle) theory of light. In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.

This type of experiment was first performed, using light, by Thomas Young inas a demonstration of the wave behavior of light. In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes instates that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess was based on an alternate description of atomism of the time period.

Isaac Newton was a pioneer of this theory; he notably. Light consists of particles known as photons and matter are made up of particles known as protons, electrons, and neutrons.

Let’s understand how the light behaves as a particle and as a wave. Wave Theory of Light. Diffraction is one of the behaviours of waves. Interference is the other behaviour of waves.

James Clerk Maxwell showed that light is an electromagnetic wave that travels at the speed of light. Light is a wave. Book it, done. Then, in the late s, and sometimes, it acts like a wave. So, are light and matter made of waves or particles.

The answer is both, sort of. There are two independent directions in which wave motion can occur. In this case, these are the y and z directions mentioned above. depicts the motion of a transverse wave.

Here we observe that the wave is moving in t and oscillating in the x-y plane. A wave can be thought as comprising many particles (as seen in the figure) which oscillate up. Seminal physical models of the nature of light were developed in parallel with the many empirical discoveries of the 17th century.

Two competing models of light, as a collection of fast-moving particles and as a propagating wave, were La Dioptrique (), French philosopher-mathematician René Descartes described light as a pressure wave transmitted at infinite speed through a.

Visible Light Reflection and Transmission Reflection and transmission of light waves occur because the frequencies of the light waves do not match the natural frequencies of vibration of the objects.

When light waves of these frequencies strike an. Waves do. But in experiments, particles in the subatomic world sometimes travel like waves. And they sometimes travel like particles. Why the tiniest laws of nature work that way isn’t clear — to anyone. Consider photons.

These are the particles that make up light and radiation. They’re tiny packets of. Claim: "Light" is both a particle and a wave (the photon, <a href=""> Fact.

Light as a particle: The textbook might start off with some experimental evidence from the historic photoelectric effect to show that the wave model of light doesn’t always describe what. Photon, also called light quantum, minute energy packet of electromagnetic concept originated () in Albert Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect, in which he proposed the existence of discrete energy packets during the transmission of r (), the German physicist Max Planck had prepared the way for the concept by explaining that heat radiation is.

There are no faster-than-light signals, the amplitudes of probability is the wave-function handle the wave-packets of the two particles despite the distances. Cite 6th May, In solids, sound waves can propagate in four principle modes that are based on the way the particles oscillate.

Sound can propagate as longitudinal waves, shear waves, surface waves, and in thin materials as plate waves. Longitudinal and shear waves are the two modes of propagation most widely used in ultrasonic testing.

Based on Einstein’s light quantum hypothesis, the duality of the photon was confirmed quantum-mechanical experiments and examination. The photon is now regarded as a particle in fields related to the interaction of material with light that is absorbed and emitted; and regarded as a wave in regions relating to light propagation.

At its simplest, the sunlight-to-heat conversion occurs when photons (particles of light) moving around within light waves interact with molecules moving around in a substance. The electromagnetic rays emitted by the sun have a lot of energy in them.

Advanced; Basic; The Electromagnetic Spectrum. As it was explained in the Introductory Article on the Electromagnetic Spectrum, electromagnetic radiation can be described as a stream of photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern, carrying energy and moving at the speed of that section, it was pointed out that the only difference between radio waves, visible light and gamma rays.

Particles and waves: historical essays in the philosophy of science Peter Achinstein A collection of essays by the scientific philosopher Peter Achinstein, representing the culmination of his examination of methodological issues arising from 19th century physics.

Example: Torsion waves passing through each other. Two waves can occupy the same place at the same time. The total amplitude is simply the sum of the individual amplitudes. The two waves do not scatter from each other.

In this way waves are completely different than material particles like billiard balls. SHOW negative and positive wave crests.

The wave-like nature of matter was proposed by two scientists independently, at nearly the same time, despite being oblivious of each other’s work. These two erstwhile discoverers were scientists Louis De Broglie and Erwin Schrodinger. They used two fundamentally different mathematical approaches to prove the wave-like nature of matter.

Light waves, also called electromagnetic waves, are forms of moving energy made of tiny microscopic particles called photons. How fast the wave vibrates is referred to as its frequency. Now even if you ignore this particle aspect of light, if you just look at the wave aspect of the light, it's still fascinating.

Because most waves require a medium to travel through. So for example, if I think about how sound travels through air-- so let me draw a bunch of air particles.

I'll draw a sound wave traveling through the air particles. the wave model. S3P Perform Young’s experiment for double-slit diffraction of light to calculate the wavelength of light.

Include: S3P Describe light as an electromagnetic wave. S3P Discuss Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect qualitatively. Waves and Particles: In diffraction experiments,light was shown to behave like a wave while in experiments like the Photoelectric effect, light behaved like a particle.

More difficult diffraction experiments showed that electrons (as well as the other particles) also behaved like a wave, yet we can only detect an integer number of electrons (or. The Sun and many other light sources produce waves that are randomly polarized (see Figure 4).

Such light is said to be unpolarized because it is composed of many waves with all possible directions of polarization. Polaroid materials, invented by the founder of Polaroid Corporation, Edwin Land, act as a polarizing slit for light, allowing only polarization in one direction to pass through.

However, Einstein proved that light can act as particles in some circumstances, and that a wave-particle duality exists.

And, given that he related energy and mass (E=mc 2), it becomes more conceivable that a wave (which has an energy value) not only has an equation to mass but a momentum as well.

Momentum of a Photon. Unlike a particle of matter that is characterized by its rest mass \(m_0\), a photon is massless. In a vacuum, unlike a particle of matter that may vary its speed but cannot reach the speed of light, a photon travels at only one speed, which is exactly the speed of light.

For light to move through space as either type of wave, it must have a medium to move through. This meant that Huygens’ theory, like all theories of light before it, relied on the idea that the universe is filled with Aristotle’s fifth element, the aether.

Albert Einstein explained this experiment by postulating that the energy of light is quantized. He assumed that light consists of individual particles called photons, so that the kinetic energy of the electrons, K.E= p 2 /2mequals the energy of the photons, E ph, minus the energy, qF M, required to extract the electrons from the workfunction, F M,therefore quantifies the potential.

Another way that light is said to travel is as particles, or packets of energy. These packets are called photons, which are elementary particles that carry EM force.

The concept of photons was developed by Albert Einstein to describe the actions of light that did not follow the convention of waves.

The wave nature of the light is eliminated, only the particle nature remains and particles cannot make interference patterns.

Clearly the two slit experiments, for the first time in physics, indicates that there is a much deeper relationship between the observer and the phenomenon, at least at the subatomic level. When a wave reaches the end of the medium, it doesn't just vanish. A portion of its energy is transferred into what lies beyond the boundary of that medium.

And a portion of the energy reflects off the boundary and remains in the original medium. This Lesson discusses the principles associated with this behavior that occurs at the boundary. The light wave could be absorbed by the object, in which case its energy is converted to heat.

The light wave could be reflected by the object. And the light wave could be transmitted by the object. sound energy: Sound is a type of energy made by vibrations. When any object vibrates, it causes movement in the air particles.

The scattering of light is an important part of our daily life, although we didn’t realize its importance. Scattering of light is different from reflection, as in reflection the radiation is deflected in one direction while in scattering every object or particle can scatter light and illuminates them in all direction.

A lit light bulb is made of matter, plus it emits energy in the form of heat and light. The wind consists of matter (gases in air, dust, pollen), plus it has kinetic and thermal energy. A sugar cube consists of matter. It contains chemical energy, thermal energy, and potential energy (depending on your frame of reference).

Energy waves can also be refracted, bent. Light is easiest to observe as it is refracted. Light always travels in a straight line when going through a single medium, any substance through which a light wave can travel.

In some mediums, such as air, light travels quickly. In other mediums, such as water and glass, light travels more slowly. Light, he urged, must be a displacement in something if it is to have peaks and troughs that can cancel out. That something, the carrier of the light wave, is the ether.

If light were made up of corpuscles, it seemed impossible that one could combine two corpuscles and have them annihilate.electromagnetic waves – eg light waves, microwaves, radio waves transverse waves such as seismic S-waves may be thought of as s hake or s hear waves as the particles .

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